Turbochargers and superchargers are designed to force more air mass (and more oxygen molecules) into the engine's intake manifold and combustion chamber. Intercooling is a method for compensating for heating caused by pressurization, which is a natural by-product of the semi-adiabatic compression process. Increased air pressure can result in superheated intake charge, which significantly reduces boost performance gain due to reduced density. The increased intake air charge temperature also increases the cylinder combustion temperature, causing an explosion of the engine block or piston, excessive wear or thermal damage.
Passing the compressed and heated intake air through the intercooler reduces its temperature (due to heat rejection) and pressure (due to the flow restriction of the heat sink). If the equipment is designed reasonably, the relative decrease in temperature is greater than the relative loss of pressure, resulting in a net increase in density. This improves system performance by venting heat to the atmosphere to restore some of the losses of the inefficient compression process. By spraying the outside of the fine mist onto the intercooler surface, or even into the intake air itself, additional cooling can be provided to further reduce the intake air temperature by evaporative cooling.
An intercooler that exchanges heat directly with the atmosphere is designed to be installed in the automotive area with maximum airflow. These types are primarily installed in the front system (FMIC). Nissan Skyline, Saab, Volvo 200 Series Turbo, Volvo 700 Series (and 900 Series) Turbo, Dodge SRT-4, First Generation Mazda MX-6, Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution and Chevrolet Cobalt SS The intercooler (s) is installed near the front bumper and is identical to the radiator of the car.
The aesthetics of many other turbocharged cars, especially cars, are not affected by top buckets such as Toyota Supra (JZA80 only), Nissan 300ZX Twin Turbo, Nissan Silvia (S13 / 14 / 14a / 15), Nissan 180sx, Mitsubishi 3000gt, Saab 900, Volkswagen, Fiat Turbo Diesel, Audi TT and Turbo Mitsubishi Eclipse use side-mounted air-to-air coolers (SMIC) that are mounted on the front corner of the bumper or one of the wheels in front. Side-mounted intercoolers are typically small, primarily due to space limitations, and sometimes two are used to achieve greater performance of a single intercooler. Subaru Impreza WRX, MINI Cooper S, Toyota Celica GT-Four, Nissan Pulsar GTI-R, Acura RDX, Mazdaspeed3, Mazdaspeed6 and PSAPeugeotCitroën turbocharged diesel vehicles use air-to-air top intercooler (TMIC) at the top of the engine . Guide the air through the intercooler by using a hood bucket. In the case of a PSA car, air flows through the grille above the front bumper and then through the duct under the hood. The top mounted intercooler sometimes spreads heat as the engine approaches, warming it up and reducing its overall efficiency. Some World Rally Championship cars use a reverse induction system design that forces air through the ducts in the front bumper to the horizontally mounted intercooler.