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Exhaust System Design Criteria
Jul 20, 2018

                                                         Exhaust system of the Opel Corsa B 1.2 petrol.png

Exhaust system of the Opel Corsa B 1.2 petrol

The exhaust pipe must be carefully designed to carry toxic and/or toxic gases away from the user of the machine. Indoor generators and furnaces can be quickly filled with toxic exhaust gases (such as hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides) if not properly discharged outside. In addition, most types of machines have very hot gases; pipes must be heat resistant and must not pass through or approach any object that may burn or may be damaged by heat. The chimney is used as an exhaust pipe in a fixed structure. For internal combustion engines, it is important to "tune" the exhaust system (refer to tuning the exhaust) for optimum efficiency. This should also be in line with the regulatory norms of each country.


Motorcycles

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Exhaust piping and silencer (muffler) on a Ducati Monster motorcycle
In most motorcycles, all or most of the exhaust system is visible and can be chrome plated as a display feature. Aftermarket exhaust can be made of steel, aluminum, titanium or carbon fiber.
There are many types of motorcycle exhaust depending on the type of engine and its intended use. The twin cylinders can vent their exhaust into a separate exhaust section, such as seen in the Kawasaki EX250 (also known as Ninja 250, or GPX 250 in the United States). Alternatively, they can flow into a single exhaust portion called 2-in-1 (2-1). Large engines with 4-cylinder engines, such as the Japanese Super Sport or Super Bike (such as the Kawasaki ZX series, the Honda CBR series, the Yamaha YZF series, also known as the R6 and R1, and the Suzuki GSX-R series) usually have double rows. Gas system. The "Complete System" can be purchased as an aftermarket accessory, also known as 4-2-1 or 4-1, depending on its layout. In the past, these bicycles will come standard with a single exhaust unit, as shown by the Kawasaki ZX-6R 2000 and 2001 models. However, the EU's noise and pollution regulations generally stop this practice, forcing companies to use other methods to improve the performance of motorcycles.
A 2-stroke exhaust can be made to be quieter than 70dBa at 6000 rpm without sacrificing any power gains.. The latest generation of four-stroke street motorcycle engines can approach 2T red line speeds, but still have the extra weight and inertia of the cams and valves, making the difference between "cleaner combustion" negligible and the engine life shortened to what is expected, while also having the sound of a 4T exhaust carrying for miles in many cases. Additionally, "the nature of the beast" is that a 4T exhaust note above 6000 rpm is unduly harsh to the human ear.

Trucks
In many trucks, all or most of the exhaust system is visible. Typically in such trucks, the muffler is surrounded by a perforated metal sheath to prevent people from being scalded into contact with the thermal muffler. This sheath may be chrome plated as a display feature. Part of the pipe between the engine and the muffler is typically a flexible metal industrial pipe that helps to prevent engine vibrations from being transferred into the exhaust system. Sometimes the large diesel exhaust pipe is vertical, blowing hot toxic gases away from the crowd; in this case, the end of the exhaust pipe usually has a hinged metal cover to prevent debris, birds and rain falling into it.

Two-stroke engines
In a two-stroke engine, such as that used on dirt bikes, a bulge in the exhaust pipe known as an expansion chamber uses the pressure of the exhaust to create a pump that squeezes more air and fuel into the cylinder during the intake stroke. This provides greater power and fuel efficiency. See Kadenacy effect.

Marine engines
The onboard diesel or petrol (gasoline) engine is located below the ship deck: -
• Lagging the exhaust pipe stops it from overheating the engine room where one must repair the engine.
• Adding water into the exhaust pipe cools the exhaust, reducing the back pressure of the engine cylinders. Typically in marine service, the exhaust manifold is integrated with a heat exchanger that allows seawater to cool a closed fresh water system that circulates within the engine.
Outboard motors
In outboard motors the exhaust system is usually a vertical passage through the engine structure and to reduce out-of-water noise blows out underwater, sometimes through the middle of the propeller.

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